Hospitals from France, Spain and the Netherlands win Awards

25/10/2012 – HIMSS Analytics Europe announced that it will be awarding EMRAM Stage 6 & 7 awards to hospitals from France, Spain and the Netherlands at its annual CIO Summit taking place in Mallorca, November 18-20, 2012. The winners will be receiving their awards at the Awards Dinner on November 19th.

The European EMR Adoption Model (EMRAM) has been adapted to meet the unique needs of European Healthcare Institutions as a methodology for evaluating the progress and impact of electronic medical record systems in hospitals. Tracking their progress in completing eight stages (0-7), hospitals can review the implementation and utilization of information technology applications with the intent of reaching Stage 7, which represents a superior electronic patient record environment.

“Stage 6 & 7 hospitals provide best practices that other healthcare organizations can study as they strive to use EMR applications to improve patient safety, clinical outcomes and patient care delivery efficiency,” said Uwe Buddrus, General Manager, HIMSS Analytics Europe.

For further information on the Stage 6 & 7 award, please visit:

About the HIMSS Europe Leadership Summit
The HIMSS Europe Health IT Leadership Summit, is a Pan-European executive level forum for education, collaboration and dialogue. Top leaders from healthcare, IT and government will convene to help advance the quality of healthcare delivery. The event will feature conference sessions, a hospital visit and vast networking opportunities at the most senior level. For further information, please visit

About HIMSS Analytics Europe
HIMSS Analytics Europe (HAE) provides health care organisations, governments and industry with extensive data resources and services about the adoption and use of healthcare information technology in Europe. HAE’s offerings include comparative Hospital IT adoption benchmarking, a European-formulated EMR Adoption Model (EMRAM) scale, and other resources to help hospital directors, IT executives and clinicians compare and measure their progress and how they compare to others. Country level and application specific reports also provide insights into major IT adoption trends and applications.

People who rock the industry – Marta Stelmaszak

We’re delighted to announce a new series: “People who rock the translation industry!”, in which we will be interviewing people who have made a positive contribution, no matter how small or large, to the translation industry – at the international, national or local level.

The obvious choice for the first installment in this series would be an interview of colleague Marta Stelmaszak, who is a true rock star when it comes to helping freelance translators embrace their business skills and abilities. An added bonus is that Marta is also taking part in this series as an interviewer – we will both be interviewing amazing people and colleagues, and the interviews will be shared between this blog and hers (Wantwords) at the rate of two per month – one monthly on each blog. Here on the Stinging Nettle, all interviews will be under the newly created “Rocking the industry!” category, under “Articles in English”.

If you know someone who rocks the industry, contact us!

Enough chit chat. I will now leave you to enjoy Marta’s interview, the first in the series, and find out all about the amazing job she’s doing!

Hi Marta! Tell us about you. Who are you?

Most of the time I’m a translator and I translate between Polish and English law, IT, marketing and business. Quite often I’m an interpreter and then I interpret legal and business matters. Sometimes I’m also a communication consultant, and then I work on intercultural aspects of doing business. From time to time I present and give talks (most often on using the Internet in the languages industry), or even write articles and publications (on social media or effective CVs – links). In addition, on some occasions I’m a business consultant in the industry – I’m a qualified business mentor and a member of the Institute of Enterprise and Entrepreneurs.
When I’m not doing these things, I’m active as member of the Management Committee of the Interpreting Division at the Chartered Institute of Linguists and a co-head of the UK Chapter of the International Association of Professional Translators and Interpreters. I’ve been voted a Top 17 Twitterer (@mstelmaszak) and Top 20 Facebook Fan Page (WantWords) in Language Lovers 2012. I run the Business School for Translators and I’m sharing the spirit of freelancing and having a successful business.

At the same time, I’m trying to polish my Norwegian and I’m saving for a wooden house by a fjord.

Tell us a bit about your background and career so far.

I grew up in a monolingual family, but I started learning English when I was about 7. I always wanted to do something with languages, and communication was my passion. I started a degree in Warsaw , but it wasn’t the right time for idealists, so I decided to leave it and move abroad. I went to Norway and only there did I realise that I could fulfil all of my dreams, even those that I thought would never come true. I started transforming these dreams into plans, and I finally moved to London to do my degree in translation. And that’s how it all started. I’ve been a translator and interpreter since I can remember, and I had only short periods of working for others. Everything I do makes me believe that having my own business, whether as a freelancer or a small company, is the best choice for me.

You founded your famous “Business School for Translators”. What is it exactly?

Careers in translation or interpreting most often involve regular academic training. We have to spend a few years studying translation theory, honing our skills, or practicing in a booth. It is of course essential to master the theory and the practical skills. But when we graduate and get our diploma, we don’t always know how to start using our skills in the real, professional life. We hardly ever possess any business knowledge of the industry, and scarcely anyone knows how to earn money doing what we love and have been taught.

Over the years, I learnt a lot about the industry by myself, and I also developed my background in business and entrepreneurship. At one point of my career I decided that I wanted to share this knowledge and experience with other translators and interpreters. The Business School represents the idea that we’re all small businesses and entrepreneurs and it’s the way of spreading this notion amongst colleagues in translation and interpreting.  In other words, everything I do under the heading of the Business School for Translators is to encourage my colleagues to think business and to help them develop as mini entrepreneurs. I write a blog, I share publications, I’m active on Facebook, Twitter, and I organise Google+ Hangouts.

Where did the idea of the business school come from?

There are some bits of business training that our universities never give us and they turn out to be essential in becoming a successful, money-making translator. A few lessons on the practical knowledge of the industry would help, just to know how it is doing, where it is going and what are the areas worth looking at. Basic tax and legal knowledge, whilst certainly outside of the translator training scope, could be at least mentioned and some resources could be identified. Basics of marketing definitely should be a part of the curriculum. And where’s the module on financial management? We are also not taught that there is a wholly different pool of skills we will need out there: communication, pro-activeness, responsiveness, stress management, self-discipline, and negotiation… these areas are essential to working in translation or interpreting!

I used to rock from the early years!

You’re also part of the Websites for Translators team. What do you guys do?

I helped with setting up the company and with initial development. Then Meg took over, and she’s now delivering great websites, logos and business cards to translators and interpreters all over the world. The team believes that every freelancer is in fact a small business, and that’s why investing in marketing and promotion is essential. Websites for Translators aims to empower translators and interpreters to uphold the professional standards, find more clients and never have to lower the rates.

If you do have free time (do you?!), what do you enjoy doing?

At the moment, I’m studying and researching forensic linguistics. I’m particularly interested in guilt lost in translation, but I’m also quite into researching the language of social media. Do we write or talk on Facebook? Is Twitter more similar to written or spoken language? How does the character limit influence our syntax? These are some of the questions I’m trying to deal with while not working. I’m also thinking of taking up martial arts and organising a TEDx on languages and translation.

What do you think the future of the translation industry looks like?

Exactly the way we will make it. I don’t believe in these menaces of post-editing or machine translation replacing human translators. I don’t believe in Google Translate becoming equally accurate as humans. I don’t believe that huge companies will create translation memories able to automatically translate all documents. I believe in us, real translators. We have enough strength, dignity and courage to take a stand and fight for the profession. We’re also crazy enough to rock the industry.

The Third Annual Health 2.0 Europe Conference in Berlin

6 – 7 November 2012, Berlin, Germany.
Healthcare is changing profoundly due to new web and mobile applications. The conference Health 2.0 Europe addresses recent developments in this emerging field. The 2012 edition features exciting live technology demos and panels dedicated to answering the most urgent questions in health care.

The Health 2.0 Europe conference promotes a new ecosystem for health innovation, and gathers together over 300 health entrepreneurs, IT solution providers, health professionals, patient organizations, health authorities, insurers, pharmaceutical companies, telecom groups, VCs and financiers, policy makers, and many more.

A few examples from the 50+ LIVE technology demos presented at the conference

  • iDoc24 cell phone-based dermatology consultation service
  • Isabel symptom checker empowering patients to search the right information and ask the right questions
  • Drugee platform collecting adverse drug reactions from patients and health professionals
  • Thryve mobile food coach, which listens to your body and helps you figure out what you should eat more of, and what you should avoid
  • Medting web-based platform for clinical case collaboration allowing doctors to request second opinions from other doctors around the world

The Health 2.0 Europe 2012 Agenda topics include

  • Patient communities and physician networks
  • Health 2.0: transforming hospitals and physicians’ practices
  • Financing Health 2.0
  • Compliance, Chronic Care and Population Health Management
  • Health promotion and Wellness 2.0
  • Sexual health, mental health, addictions, and other “unmentionables”

Inspirational speakers Tim KELSEY, the Executive Director of Transparency and Open Data for the UK Government, and Peter LEVIN, the Senior Advisor to the Secretary and CTO at the US Department of Veterans Affairs, will be among the 75 speakers carefully selected from over 25 different countries.

A special session on Health 2.0 for Pharma, moderated by Alexander SCHACHINGER of Healthcare 42 in Germany, will discuss how to best collaborate with doctors and about engaging patients. The session will also address questions on how to make the most of data, how to unleash clinical development, and how to avoid the numerous potential pitfalls.

To encourage their participation, Health 2.0 Europe is extending free registration for patient organization representatives.

Promoting ideation and innovation from all angles, Health 2.0 Europe 2012 also features a two-day “Code-A-Thon” on November 3 – 4 that brings together developers, designers, healthcare professionals and patients to create new and exciting applications for improved health and wellness. Registration to this event is free and 9,000 € in cash prizes will be distributed to the winners.

Register today for best way to get up to speed with the latest developments in Health 2.0.

For further information, please visit:

About Health 2.0 Europe
Health 2.0 Europe is the premier conference exploring how web, mobile and social technologies are transforming health care systems in Europe. As an organization, Health 2.0 has introduced over 500 technology companies to the world stage, hosted more than 9,000 attendees at conferences and code-a-thons, awarded over $1,400,000 in prizes through developer challenge programs and inspired the formation of 46 new city chapters around the globe. Health 2.0 isn’t a company, it’s a movement.

Internet Marketing for Translators: Websites, blogs, profiles

An absolute basic in Internet Marketing is having a website, a blog or at least a public page on the Web used as a shop window of your services and a place you can refer all of your visitors to (a profile, for example). Of course this is not an absolute must, but it’s somewhat trickier if you don’t have one.


A good website starts with a user-friendly, easy-to-navigate interface. Potential clients ending up on your website should quickly and easily be able to find all the basic information they need about you as a translator, your language pairs, services, areas of specialization, etc. The goal is for them to find all this information in less than 30 seconds and to want to know more, so that they stay on your website and visit its other pages to find out more. You must help them do so with a clean and logical structure to navigate this other information. The site shouldn’t be too loaded down  – even though connections are much faster nowadays, the global average remains slower, so do not include too many heavy images and plug-ins – your site should load quickly. Also, mind your writing – go easy on the colors and avoid WRITING IN CAPITAL LETTERS…

A frequently heard question is whether you should localize your website. Easy answer: yes, I personally think you should, in all your working languages because 1) it’s just perfect for your SEO, 2) it is also an elegant way of showing off your language skills and 3) it might help you get clients from your source language countries.

Keep it up-to-date – regularly doing so helps your Google ranking and makes a much better impression than a website that has obviously been “left to rot” for the past four years. This particularly applies to links – make sure they all work, maintain them, and update them.

Further reads and links on website optimization:
– Top 10 Tips to a Great Web Page
– 10 tips – how to build a good website – Cordis
10 Most Important Web Design Tips
30 Tips for a Good Website
Beginner Tip: 5 Steps To A Great Home Page
What Is on Your Business Website That Shouldn’t Be?

Last but not least, ideally seek the help and guidance of a professional to (re)create your website. I can highly recommend the services of Websites for Translators.


The good news is that there are plenty of business networking platforms on the Web where your profiles can stand out, show a complete overview of your services and therefore play the role of a website.

I know a lot of freelance translators who use their profile as their website. And why not? It’s public, so no need to log in to see the profile (like on Viadeo or Xing), it has a very high Google ranking and it is actually meant and designed for translators and for our industry. A well-done and full profile can be a great complete shop-window online, so go for it.

Some resources on profile completion and optimization:
– Getting the most out of your profile
– Profile completion 2.0
– profile: Creating a standout “About me”


LinkedIn is THE global business network. I can’t emphasize enough how important it is. Sure, it may not be designed specifically for our industry but it offers tools and possibilities that we can use just as well as any other industry – tools and possibilities that really are very powerful. LinkedIn not only has an excellent Google ranking, it also gives us the chance to reach out to other professionals, within the translation world (not everybody is on or TranslatorsCafé) but also outside of it. Through LinkedIn you really can meet potential clients (including end-clients), and network with people who may need your services and who may partner with you. LinkedIn Groups are an extremely practical and powerful networking tool, as are Questions/Answers and similar features. Your LinkedIn profile has great shop-window potential if it is complete and optimized.

Some resources:
– 6 Steps to a More Marketable LinkedIn Profile
– LinkedIn Profile Tips: The 10 Mistakes You Want to Avoid and Why

Check out this upcoming webinar (Oct 24th): “Build yourself an optimized LinkedIn profile” (hurry, seats are selling fast)


People ask a lot about Xing during workshops and webinars. To be honest, Xing is useless unless you’re doing business with German clients since they still widely use this network. However, recent LinkedIn stats showed that it was slowly gaining a lot of German users, so my guess is that Xing will slowly decay. It still remains a solid platform however, and having an additional profile there as “just another static page”; presenting your services never hurts and is good for your SEO. Simply make sure the profile is accurate, up-to-date and SEO-friendly but I would not invest time and money in it anymore.


Viadeo is even more useless, unless you do business with France. For some reason I can’t quite understand, French people registered there en masse;  like Xing contains mostly German users, Viadeo contains mostly French people. The problem is that nobody else visits this platfrom (I know, I’m simplifying) and Viadeo profiles cannot be seen unless you’re a registered user (which is extremely annoying when you’re Googling someone and the only online business profile available is their Viadeo profile). As is also the case with Xing, it does not hurt to have that additional result showing up in a Google search (Viadeo has a good Google ranking) so why not take one hour to create another static page briefly summarizing your services and offerings? However, do not spend too much time on it either. Remember that even static profiles have to be updated as needed.


Facebook is a tricky case. You don’t have to use it as a marketing tool – it is meant to connect with your personal contacts (family and friends). However,Facebook marketing has proved how useful and powerful it could be, particularly for B2C businesses. This is not our case in the translation industry but still, there are agencies using their profiles or pages to post jobs or call for translators, colleagues sharing job posts, etc. You need to make a decision: do you want to use Facebook for marketing or keep it for private use only? If you decide to use Facebook for personal purposes only, make sure your profile and all its content are private and not available for the whole Web to see. However, if you’re considering Facebook marketing, the first question you should ask yourself is: page or profile? My take is that Profiles are the ideal solution for freelance translators. It allows you to “Friend” agency profiles, it suits you better than a page and – very important – it does not require the same amount of time to maintain as a page. A page needs to be alive, to be regularly updated, to post content in a consistent manner. It is a lot of work.

So, Facebook marketing with a profile: either you use your existing personal profile and use Friends Lists to make sure business contacts you are friends with only see what you want them to see, or you simply create a second profile for professional purposes only and therefore maintain a clean separation between your personal and business lives (this one can be public and indexed by Google).


Your Twitter profile is a particular case in this context: you don’t want it to be the page you refer all your visitors to. There’s simply too little space and flexibility there to make it a true shop-window of you, your skills, services, expertise, etc.


A Google+ profile/page could be an interesting shop-window strategy because of the Google ranking; however, I do not recommend making it the page you refer visitors to – there is not enough there to make it a true and good shop-window. As an additional place from which to refer people to your main page/profile/blog/website however, it is a great tool.

  • BLOG

Many of you often ask: “Is a blog a must?” No, it isn’t. The truth is, it’s better not to have a blog than to have one you don’t have time to maintain – not having a blog does not impact your online presence negatively, but having a dead one that’s been abandoned for 11 months after only three posts does. That being said, a blog remains a very intelligent strategic move in an Internet marketing strategy. You don’t need to post everyday – you just need to be consistent. This means that if you decide to write a new article every month, that’s great, but if you say it, stick to it – people who follow your blog should know they can expect news from you once a month (at the beginning or end of the month).

Once you’ve made the decision to start a blog and have defined a posting schedule, the big issue now is content. On an almost daily basis, translators ask me “what should I write about?”. I can’t answer this question for you, but I can give you some general tips on directions to take.

You first need to define/decide what your goal is with a blog – here are just a few examples:

– sharing and expressing your views and opinions on industry politics/developments?

– offering reviews of new tools (those related to the industry as well as those not directly related) – CAT tools, MT solutions, TM tools, etc.?

– showing your expertise in a given field/topic as part of your marketing strategy (e.g. you are a legal translator so your blog will primarily deal with legal matters)

The good news is that you can elect to apply more than just one of the above; you do not need to limit yourself to just one direction.

Your blog may be used as a website if the platform used is flexible and scalable enough to allow for clean and clear structure and different pages (like WordPress). By all means, a blog is definitely one of the greatest and most powerful Internet marketing tools.

Guest post: Translating with and without medical background – a retrospective study

Medical Translation: A Retrospective Study on the Quality of Medical Translation Produced by Translators With and Without a Medical Background

Newest guest post on the Stinging Nettle! Yana Onikiychuk (MD and freelance medical translator and interpreter from Limassol, Cyprus), Ekaterina Chashnikova (freelance medical translator and editor from Moscow, Russia) and Artem Karateev (specialist on social research, PhD, Moscow State University in Moscow, Russia) conducted a study on medical translation by medical professionals vs. background translators. They give here very detailed results of the study – a fascinating read! We are very proud to have been allowed to publish it here as a guest post – many thanks to the authors for conducting the survey and this excellent article, but also for allowing us to publish it on our blog as well!


During the last century, the volume of investigations and scientific knowledge in the field of medicine has grown exponentially. At the same time, the exchange of  information among medical professionals has increased to enormous amounts, becoming a fundamental aspect of the development of medical science. However, this exchange would not be possible if people were not speaking the same language. We can see that English is becoming a main language of science in the world scientific arena, as a vast majority of publications and reports are done in this particular language. Yet, some linguistic barriers to effective communication still exist.. Medical translation is a highly specialized field, dealing both with translation of medical-related written information and with interpreting of medical events. Healthcare interpreting is of particular interest because of its role in establishing communication bridges between healthcare practitioners and their non-native language patients. This report elucidates the role of medical translation and interpreting in modern society and in promoting medical and related sciences. We also bring out preliminary results on a new study in the field of medical translation, in which we compare medical translators with and without a medical background and the types of mistakes they tend to make more often when translating medical documents. According to the preliminary statistics, translators with a linguistic background are more prone to terminological and logical mistakes, while translators with a medical background are more prone to grammatical and stylistic mistakes. With an increase in years of experience, this difference becomes insignificant, and translators start to make fewer mistakes overall.


For the last centuries, we have seen a burst of development and innovation in the field of medicine. New information arises everyday on diseases, therapy and patient management. And this new information has to be transformed into other languages and cultures to ensure its global use. The field of medical translation and interpreting serves this purpose. Medical interpreting plays a vital role in the exchange of oral information at medical meetings, conferences, workshops or even at the hospital unit between doctor and patient (so-called healthcare interpreting). Medical translation deals with all variety of medical documentation, from scientific articles to patient information leaflets for drugs or marketing materials for medical devices. These documents vary significantly in terms of style and terminology, but they have one thing in common: the price of a mistake during translation is enormously high and equals the health and life of a patient. What kind of professionals are involved in medical translation? We can divide alltranslators and interpreters working with medical information into two big groups. The first group is comprised of professionals with a linguistic background specialized in the translation/interpreting of medical content. They acquired such specialization with specific training or just with practice, frequently dealing with medical documents/events. The second group consists of professionals with a medical background. This could be medical/nursing school, or an education in biomedicine or pharmaceutical science. Such professionals usually have a good command in their native language and one or two foreign languages, which they learn at university or at different language courses. Some of them, but not all receive dedicated training on the translation of medical documents, which is included on the curriculum in many medical and pharmaceutical schools. Very few professionals from this group obtain additional education in translation and linguistics, and this is usually offered in a truncated curriculum. Medical translators/interpreters with a medical or relevant degree are not common within the translation industry, especially in Western Europe and the US, as the cost of obtaining a medical education and going into the medical profession is extremely high in those countries. However, in Russia and Eastern Europe (e.g. Poland, Hungary) there are some translators of this kind in the market. The reason for this is that specialized medical translators are in high demand in these countries, and the moderate income level of medical professionals forces them to find an additional part-time or even full-time translation job. These two groups of medical translators/interpreters have some significant differences in product quality when they work with medical information.
In our study, we reviewed test samples from medical translators with and without a medical background and assessed the differences in the types of mistakes they are prone to make while translating medical documents.


Our study has a retrospective design and consists of two phases. In phase 1 we evaluated test translations from freelance medical translators. Translation was performed from English into Russian on medical text. This assessment was performed by two independent reviewers in a blinded fashion. Every sample was assessed for stylistic, grammatical and spelling mistakes, adequate translation of source terms and medical concepts. We also assessed the formatting and layout of the target text. After this assessment, the blinding was broken and results were matched with CVs from the translators who preformed those tests. Statistical analysis was performed by an independent expert in social studies and statistics. Primary information processing was performed with statistical grouping. The sample was divided into 3 cohorts: translators with a linguistic background (L), translators with a medical background (MD), and translators with a combined medical and linguistic background (MDL). Every subject was assessed by 2 endpoints: number of stylistic (St) and grammatical (Gr) mistakes and number of terminological (Tm) and logical (Lg) mistakes.Our initial hypothesis was that medical translation professionals with a linguistic background tend to make more ‘terminological’ mistakes, while professionals with a medical or relevant background make more ‘stylistic’ mistakes. With years of experience, the total number of mistakes decreases, and the difference between these two groups becomes insignificant. For phase 2 we developed a questionnaire for experts in medical translation to evaluate their opinion on training for medical translators/interpreters, the importance of a medical background for translating medical content, and potential problems with medical translation by professionals with and without a medical background.


The study is still ongoing. At this moment, we have enrolled 60 sample translations. Four samples were excluded as non-evaluable. The enrollment plan is 2000 samples to provide statistical power for the study. Test samples were divided into 3 cohorts: translators with a linguistic background (L), translators with a medical background (MD), and translators with a combined medical and linguistic background (MDL). Primary endpoints were (1) number of mistakes per sample, (2) correlation between the number of mistakes and background and/or years of experience, and (3) quality of translation from MDLs. The following mistakes were assessed: terminological (Tm), logical (Lg), stylistic (St) and grammatical (Gr). For statistical analysis, Tm mistakes were combined with Lg mistakes, while St mistakes were assessed in combination with Gr mistakes. Preliminary results on sample distribution are shown on Figure 1.

According to the preliminary results, we can divide all translation samples into 3 groups: best-performing group (BPG) with the lowest number of mistakes, moderately performing group (MPG) with an acceptable number of mistakes, and poor performing group (PPG) with a high number of mistakes. BPG includes 8 professionals (2 Ls, 4 MDs and 2 MDLs), MPG includes the highest number of samples (37 professionals 18 Ls, 16 MDs and 3 MDLs), and PPG includes 11 professionals (3 MDs and 8 Ls). The method of averages confirms that MDs and MDLs make fewer Tm and Lg mistakes than Ls. MDLs also make fewer St and Gr mistakes than Ls and MDs. Surprisingly, MDs make fewer St and Gr mistakes than Ls. This result doesn’t correspond to the initial hypothesis, but more samples are needed to consider this difference significant. The yellow line in the plot separates the group of translators with a tolerable number of mistakes, and most of those professionals were hired by the translation agencies providing test samples for this research.


The majority of mistakes from all three cohorts were done by Ls. Perhaps a better understanding of the source text makes a translator produce better target text in Russian. Working out on Tm and Lg mistakes improves St and Gr mistakes, as we don’t see subjects behind the blue line. The number and type of mistakes in L cohort was characterized by significant variability. This could be explained by differences in background, specialization and years of experience. MDs and MDLs make fewer Tm and Lg mistakes than Ls. MDLs also make fewer St and Gr mistakes than Ls and MDs. Surprisingly, MDs make fewer St and Gr mistakes than Ls. This result doesn’t correspond to the initial hypothesis, but more samples are needed to consider this difference significant. With these additional samples, we plan to analyze the type of distribution and the density of distribution, and also to reveal any correlation between years of experience and number of mistakes for all 3 cohorts.


Samoilov D. (2011) “On Medical Translation”. Publication on-line at (in Russian)
Shahova N. (2012) “Discovering the Russian Translation Market.” in SlavFile. vol. 21(1), No. 1
Garbovskiy N. (2004). Translation Theory. Moscow: Moscow University Publishing House (in Russian)
Komissarov V. (1990). Translation Theory. Moscow: Vysshaya Shkola (in Russian)
Komissarov V. (2001). Modern Translation Science. Moscow: Vysshaya Shkola (in Russian)
Latyshev L. (2001). Translation Technology. Moscow: NVI-Tesaurus (in Russian)
Lvovskaya Z. (1985). Theoretical Issues in Translation Process. Moscow: Vysshaya Shkola (in Russian)
Alekseeva I. (2004). Introduction to Translation Science. Saint-Petersburg: Academia Publishing House (in Russian)
Buzadzhi D. (2009). New Approach to Classification of Mistakes in Translation. Moscow: Vserossiyskiy Center Perevodov (in Russian)
Kunilovskaya M. (2008). “Mistakes in Translation: Types and Classification”. Publication on-line at (in Russian)

Download the article as pdf here on Yana Onikiychuk’s website